"Were the Hebrews actually held as slaves in ancient Egypt?"

Exodus 5:1-2 Afterward Moses and Aaron went and said to Pharaoh, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.’” But Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice and let Israel go? I do not know the Lord, and moreover, I will not let Israel go.”

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The book of Exodus is named specifically for the exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt, but how certain are we that this actually took place? This is a very specific historical claim about an ancient civilization that we have learned a great deal about through archeology. What historical evidence do we have that the Hebrews were held as slaves by the Egyptians? Are the population figures described in the Book of Numbers reliable or reasonable?

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Referenced Verses:
Exodus 5:1, Exodus 5:2